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  2023  
"Economic and Social History Review" 2023 The fourth phase of the directory and abstract
2023-12-18 09:34  

稿

Marx、 Sambart、 Contents of the origin of Weber and modern capitalism

[German] Portal Sieford

European Civilization Research

澳门正版新莆京游戏Roman Holy See's response to religious reform

张锐

The formation of the Western envoy system

She Sijie Cai Wenjie

In the late 19th century, the economic guarantee mechanism of the British coal mine accident family

刘晓

19th century London's domestic garbage governance

Wang Cedar

Special research

Silk Trade: Early modern Iranian Safavi dynasty's economic support

Mother Shihong

澳门正版新莆京游戏Chinese history research

Disputes between Xiamen Customs Bank and Foreign Business after opening the port —

[Day] Murakami

Duyou "Qin She Diamond Taxpier Story" test

Wang Shaolin

English directory and summary (Contents and Summaries)


摘要

Marx、 Sambart、 Contents of the origin of Weber and modern capitalism

[German] Portlan Sheford

Abstract: The California Schoo澳门正版新莆京游戏l denies that modern capitalism originated in ancient European traditions, Because the main Asian empire and European countries are at a similar level of development around 1700 years; Marx、 The theory of Sambart and Weber holds the opposite position。 They distinguished different forms of previous capitalism and early capitalist development, To find out the factors that hinder or promote 澳门正版新莆京游戏the industrial revolution。 Ignoring these factors is equal to the importance of degrading long -term cultural differences。

Keywords: Modern Capitalist History, Marx Sambar Weber

Roman Holy See's response to religious reform

Zhang Rui

Abstract: The outbreak of the religious reform movement in 1517, In 1545, the Roman Catholic Church held the Grand Duke Meeting in Terrant, 澳门正版新莆京游戏northern Italy, The aimed to deal with religious reforms, Clarifying traditional doctrine, Promote self -innovation。 Terland Grand Duke's Conference for nearly 18 years, Get support from many European monarchs, and attracted the participation of Protestant Princes。 The meeting is expanded around the theme of doctrine and reform, I promulgated a series of dec澳门正版新莆京游戏ree, All aspects of social culture。 The Terrane Grand Duke Conference consolidated the authority of the Holy See and the status of Catholicism in Europe, an important impact on European society and culture。

Keywords: Catholic Church Roman Holy See Revolutionary Reform Doom

The formation of the Western envoy system

She Sijie Cai Wenjie

Abstract: Middle Ages' diploma澳门正版新莆京游戏tic envoy functions are single、 Representative rights are limited、 Personnel non -professional、 Foreign tasks temporarily and initiative are not limited to the government。 The Holy See of the Middle Ages has sent representatives of Pope to Byzantine and Europe, In the early days of modern times, all countries also sent representatives to the Pope Kingdom。 The late Middle Ages, With th澳门正版新莆京游戏e formation of national countries, Political affairs between the country。 During the Italian war, diplomacy occupies an increasingly important position in the government affairs of the State State of the A Pingning Peninsula, Mutual Foreign Affairs environments and government departments that are responsible for foreign affairs are born。 The "Christian State System" 澳门正版新莆京游戏centered on the Holy See collapse, Breeding the "Westpulia System" based on the principle of balance "。 The Permanent Diplomacy System has established a normal diplomatic connection for the country, The development trend of modern national sovereignty and national system is becoming more and more obvious。

Keywords: Permanent diplomatic envoy country, Italy, modern Europe

澳门正版新莆京游戏In the late 19th century, the economic guarantee mechanism of the British coal mine accident family

Liu Xiao

Abstract: The second half of the 19th century, British coal mine accident frequency, Family lost income source for the victims, but not in a poor place, It has not become a mining factors, This is mainly due to the economic security mechanism of the accident family。 Min澳门正版新莆京游戏e owner passed funding the funeral、 Provide temporary relief funds、 Pay "fast money"、 Donation to the Permanent Relief Fund to assist families with accidents; miners purchased commercial insurance、 Add two ways to join the miner permanent relief fund to improve self -rescue capabilities; social charity forces through the establishment of a coal mine difficulty fund, Assist in increasing 澳门正版新莆京游戏the income of the families of the victims。 These three constitute the main content of the mechanism。 The family economic guarantee mechanism of the coal mine accident relieves the poverty of the coal area, Maintenance of the stability and development of the coal mining industry, Far -influence。

Keywords: Family Insurance Fund Charity

19th century London's domestic garbage governance

澳门正版新莆京游戏Wang Cedar

Abstract: The first half of the 19th century, London domestic waste is mainly treated by contractors。 With the development of the city、 The raging disease and the advancement of public health movement, London society is gradually aware of domestic waste and disease、 The relationship between poverty and moral degradation, Requirement of innovation garbage gov澳门正版新莆京游戏ernance mode。 The garbage bearing system has also exposed the disadvantages of excessive pursuit of profit and ignoring social welfare。因此, In the second half of the 19th century, London local institutions began to directly intervene in domestic garbage treatment, Forms a municipal governance mode under the leadership of the government。

Keywords: domestic waste Londo澳门正版新莆京游戏n urban environment public health

Silk Trade: Early modern Iranian Safavi dynasty's economic support

Mother Shihong

Abstract: The silk trade of the Iranian Safavi dynasty belongs to the component of the early Eastern and Western intercontinental trade, It is an important part of the world market and an early -forming world market and an early global business system chain。 The first p澳门正版新莆京游戏rosperity of the Safavi dynasty silk trade, It mainly benefits from the surge in the demand of the Western silk market and the change of the world's silk trade pattern。 Driven by the demand of the international market, Aza Emperor takes many measures to support the development of silk trade, Silk exit of the Safavi dynasty began to show prosperity。 Silk trade helps the economic developme澳门正版新莆京游戏nt of the Safavi dynasty, Provides the necessary funding support for the internal reform and foreign battle of Emperor Aza, Become the Safavi Dynasty and the Ottoman Empire、 The important economic support of the Mughal Empire stands on the feet。

Keywords: Iranian Safavi dynasty silk trading Aza Emperor

Disputes between Xiamen Customs Bank and Foreign Business after opening the port —

澳门正版新莆京游戏[Day] Murakami

Abstract: This article passed the inspection of Xiamen after opening the port in November 1843, Disputes between the Customs Silver Number and British merchants taxed for the government, Discuss the impact of the reorganization of the trade management system of the Qing Dynasty after the port and the silver circulation situation in the coastal areas。 Customs 澳门正版新莆京游戏Silver Number only accepts foreign silver when taxed, Don’t accept pattern silver。此外, They use Xiamen exchange rate, Refuse to accept Guangzhou exchange rate。 This behavior has triggered a dispute between foreign merchants and customs silver。最终, UK proposed foreign negotiations, Promote Xiamen to accept silver, and use Guangzhou exchange rate tax。从此, Unifie澳门正版新莆京游戏d silver exchange exchange rates at the time of taxation at five commercial ports。 Customs Yinzhao attempts to use its own identity advantage, Control the trade and immigration business to Southeast Asia, Dissatisfaction with British businessmen。 February 1846, Xiamen Customs Silver Number was retired。之后, Increase in the number of Cantonese applicants in Xia澳门正版新莆京游戏men, Cantonese people's control of Xiamen Port is getting stronger and stronger, caused the turbulence and smuggling of Xiamen Port in the 1940s and 1950s、 The flood of activities such as pirates and hardship trade。

Keywords: foreign silver silver customs silver disputes, silver circulation

Duyou 澳门正版新莆京游戏"Qin She Diamond Taxpier Story" test

Wang Shaolin

Abstract: Du You's "Tong Dian" "Qin She Diamond Taxians" The first point "Qin's Tax Land", Not in line with the actual practice of the pre -Qin history。 In the early Chinese businessmen and the Western Zhou Dynasty, The tax basis is a group of people with strong personal attachment, instead of land; "taxpayer" was the core feature of the assignment at that time。 After the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period, 澳门正版新莆京游戏Land Private Words from shallow to deepening, "Tax Land" began to become the content and method of the national service system, But the tradition of the "taxpayer" is continued。 Du You's "Qin She Diandu" said that the second main point "Qin Tuner" is a rational summary of the former Middle Ages of the Middle Middle Ages, The third point "Qin is a tax land to the taxpayer to change the no澳门正版新莆京游戏de" to highlight the "tax land" in the three generations of the Holy King era, Therefore, it provides historical legitimacy for the development of "tax land" for the tax system in the middle of the Tang Dynasty。

Keywords: Du You

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