澳门正版新莆京游戏中文 | English   

 
 

 

 首页   Overview of the Research Institute   Academic Studies   Research Institute publication   European Civilization Research   academic dynamics   Talent training   Data Center 

 

Search in the site          
 
  2023  
"Economic and Social History Review" 2023 The second phase of the directory and abstract
2023-06-21 11:27  

Special research

The strategic defense plan of the American scientific community and the Reagan government

Zhao Xuegong

Abstract: After Reagan's gover澳门正版新莆京游戏nance, the previous "Mutual Security Destruction" strategy, Put forward a strategic defense plan, technology of developing in space interception and destroying missiles。 This plan is proposed by some scientists, It has been strongly opposed by many scientists。 Controversy of the American scientific community and some famous universitie澳门正版新莆京游戏s involved in strategic defense plans, Opposition Opinion believes that the strategic defense plan is not connected to science and technology, And will inevitably destroy the US -Soviet strategic balance, Treating a new round of arms competition, endangers world peace and stability。 A group of scientists cooperate with the government to actively carry out various research, Other scientis澳门正版新莆京游戏ts use various methods such as research reports and petitions, constantly questioning the strategic defense plan, and try to prevent research activities that have been carried out。 Dissatisfaction in the scientific community affects the strategic defense plan of the Reagan administration, But it did not stop the plan from being performed。

Keywords: Reagan government; s澳门正版新莆京游戏trategic defense plan; scientist; arms competition

The main civilization and characteristics of the emergence of the Middle Ages

Liu Jinghua

Abstract: Middle Ages, There is a wave of the rise of civilization in the history of the world。 In the civilization that emerged in this era, With Germanic civilization、 Slavic civilization、 Arabian-Islamic civilization has the most impact 澳门正版新莆京游戏on the modern world。 Similar to ancient civilization, The three main civilizations of the Middle Ages are independent original civilizations, They are the results of the natural itinerary of the development of social development。 Different from ancient civilization, The creators of these three major civilizations are nomads background, There is still a certain nomadic habit when it is in澳门正版新莆京游戏tegrated into the farming civilization; all conqueror civilization; all religious civilization, Feng Quan Yito。 Their generation and development, All encountered an excellent international environment and timing, At the same time, many nutrients that are first in civilization and contemporary civilization。 Due to the endogenous mechanism and growth space of civilization, Eventua澳门正版新莆京游戏lly European civilization stands out, take the lead in moving towards the capitalist industry 。

Keywords: Middle Ages; Germanic civilization; Arabia-Islamic civilization; Russian civilization


European Civilization Research

The spirit of poverty taxation and taxation of the Tudor dynasty in the UK

Zhang Dianqing

Abstract: In order to eliminate the phenomenon of social pov澳门正版新莆京游戏erty that continues to occur, The Government of the Tudor Government passed the promulgation of the series of "Figne of Poverty", Transform the church -led charity donation into the government for compulsory poverty taxation。 Poverty -stricken tax is a new tax created on the basis of local practice。 It takes the church as the tax levy unit, Credit tax rate, Regular collection, Taxes used 澳门正版新莆京游戏to rescue local poor families, Is a local tax authorized by parliament。 The emergence of poverty -stricken tax marks the British taxation function from simply acquiring fiscal revenue, Used directly to the people、 Social governance transformation that regulates the gap between the rich and the poor。 Taxes used in the principle of the development of the British modern taxation system for 澳门正版新莆京游戏the development of the country in the United Kingdom。

Keywords: poverty -stricken tax; Tudor dynasty; social governance; tax principles

Anglo-Saxon's church tax and its influence

Tang Qiuxiang

Abstract: At first, Angloe、 The Saxon people are religious in religion, but in the 7th century, All the king of Anglo-Saxon and its subordinates converted to Christianity。 With the 澳门正版新莆京游戏rise of Christian culture, Church donations and other church taxes began to see the Anglo-Saxon Code。 The church tax is an important source of the wealth of the Anglo-Saxon church., Although the church has political power, Have moral authority among the people,但是, The church tax also increased the heavy burden of Anglo-Saxon people, Makes the rural life in England in the early Middle Ag澳门正版新莆京游戏es more unstable。

Keywords: Anglo-Saxon; England; Church tax; Impact

The mayor of England in the late Middle Ages

Jiang Qizhou

Abstract: Since the 13th century, it has been descended, Mayor system is generally established in major cities in England in the late Middle Ages。 As a new type of official, The qualifications of the mayor are also conventional、令状、 Franchise、 L澳门正版新莆京游戏aw and other gradual frame fixed, thereby introducing the mayor's access system。 From the perspective of history for a long time, In the late Middle Ages, the mayor of the "four -in -one" may be qualified, That is moral character、 Citizen identity、 Property Qualification and Policy Capability。 The establishment of the mayor's qualifications and its legalization, 澳门正版新莆京游戏Makes the mayor's overall literacy higher, helps to consolidate the foundation of urban autonomy、 Give play to the core role of the mayor in urban governance。同时, This move also leads to a limited base for participating in urban governance, It becomes an important cause and significant representation of the political direction of the political direction of the city in the late Middle Ages 澳门正版新莆京游戏in the late Middle Age。

Keywords: Mayor; qualifications; urban governance; late Middle Ages; England

Selection of the Junshou and the local governance of England in the late Middle Ages

Liu Chang

Abstract: Anglo-Saxon Late England county has a county guard, At the beginning of the Junshou position often forms spontaneously。 Norman's conquest, The selection of the county gua澳门正版新莆京游戏rd、 Impact of factors such as property and banking, and most of the king's appointment as the main way。 With the infiltration of feudal royal rights and the continuous development of local autonomy, The method of defending the selection of the county is gradually developed into the independent election of the county people。 In the 14th century, Forms a collective appointment mode for the 澳门正版新莆京游戏selection of the county guard, and accompanied by the county's inter -county appointment and re -appointed phenomenon。 The selection of the county guard is limited by various factors, Jun Shou's selection of power to become the king、 Focus on games such as nobles and local society, But the king is ultimately led by the king。 The selection of the county guard is both the manifestation of 澳门正版新莆京游戏the will of the king's will of the feudal royal rights, It is an effective means for the participation of local social subjects。

Keywords: election; appointment; county guard; medieval; English; local governance

The Holy Large income of the priests in England in the 13th century

Yang Shaojie

Abstract: England in the 13th century, How many of the preachers to contribute to the Holy 澳门正版新莆京游戏Puppets are the primary factor affecting the revenue of the priest's sacrament, Late the basic "pattern" for the differentiation of the sacred income of the priests of the parish,。 With some repairs sponsor the occurrence of the phenomenon of the phenomenon of the phenomenon of the phenomenon of the phenomenon of the parish, Two identities of the internal division of the priests of the 澳门正版新莆京游戏parish and the host of the parish agent, Sanctuary of the parish began to assign allocation problems, The distribution form has become an important factor affecting the revenue of the priest's sacred revenue。此外, Is the uncertain factors such as paying an annuity and an agent's salary agreement, It also affects the actual revenue status of the priest's actual sacred revenue to a certain e澳门正版新莆京游戏xtent。最后, The regional economy affects the overall holy income level of the priest's priest at the macro level, Further exchanged the gap between the income of the holy income inside the missionary group。

Keywords: 13th century; England; Parisis priest; holy income; income difference

13th century England out of French research

Dai Yaoling

Abstract: 13th century, Englan澳门正版新莆京游戏d's exporting law is a local practice of severe punishment of violence crimes。 It is mainly used to deprive the rights of fugitives who have been deprived of serious crimes and are protected by the laws of the kingdom。 to the 13th century, In order to deal with a large number of criminals at this time, the dilemma of the trial without appearing in court, This local usual practice is graduall澳门正版新莆京游戏y transformed into a royal judicial procedure that forced fugitives to appear in court。 This change reflects the relying on Local society in the judicial practice of England's kingship, Wang Ting still chose to let the county court judge out of the law; on the other hand, England's kingship has not really abandoned control over the exporter, Through the general patrol court and the proce澳门正版新莆京游戏dures in the law, it has always imposed an impact on it, so as to control and stabilize the local society as much as possible。 The new development of England from the 13th century, the new development of England outside the Fa reflects the mutual checks and balances of England's kingship and local society in maintaining legal effect and social order。

Keywords: 13th century; Englan澳门正版新莆京游戏d; exporting to Fa; resume in the law


Chinese history research

Ming Dynasty Zhejiang "Tiger suffer" test

Ge Xiaohan

Abstract: "Tigers" not only refer to tigers attacking humans and causing personal property damage, Its core means that the tiger leaves the inherent living environment and invades human daily life space。 Ming Dynasty Zhejiang due to tension and deterioration of the ecol澳门正版新莆京游戏ogical environment due to human relations, "Tiger suffer" frequently。 "Tigers" mainly occurred in the middle and late Ming Dynasty, and concentrated on the occasion of autumn and winter, The place of the occurrence has spread from the wild to the town。 When people face the tigers, the tigers mainly adopt two ways of "avoiding the tiger" and "driving the tiger", The gove澳门正版新莆京游戏rnment attaches more importance to the "spiritual invasion" brought by "Tiger", Through the god "walking tiger" and "interest tiger", far more in line with the logic of local governance than "killing tigers"。 For Mingren, Tigers are not pure natural "foreign objects", "Tiger suffering" or not, and its treatment method, All reflect a kind of thinking that "symbiosis" with the tiger。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Keywords: Ming Dynasty; Zhejiang; Tiger suffering; ecological environment; social response

Close the window