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Guidelines for Research and Use of British and American History Newspaper
2024-01-29 19:57  

Digital History Newspaper Database provides valuable research tools。 More and more scholars use these databases to condu澳门正版新莆京游戏ct academic research。 Brian Beach of Van Dandburg University and W. Walker Hanlon's papers in Explorations in Economic History in October 2023, "Historial Newspaper Data: A Researcher’ s Guide "discussed the current status and how to use the history newspaper database。 The author reviews the literature of the existing data using historical newspapers, Tool packages and historical n澳门正版新莆京游戏ewspaper data for the use of historical newspaper data。

Document Review: Application of newspaper data in existing literature

Newspaper data can be divided into two categories: digital newspaper article data and newspaper directory data。 Data for digital newspaper articles, The author summarizes the relevant literature in accordance with the different role played in the research。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Newspaper data has 6 usage in the literature: 1. Used to measure the treatment effect, So as to construct a key explanation variable。2. Construct a processing variable through whether it has received newspapers (increased attention)。3. Result variables used to build interest。4. Use newspaper data to construct processing variables and results variables at the 澳门正版新莆京游戏same time。5. Some research pays attention to the behavior of news reports and newspapers itself, Using the behavior of the newspaper itself to build a result variable。6. It is used to supplement and improve other data sets。 Data for newspaper directory, The main effect is two: First, it is used to understand the media market, The second is to improve the usefulness of the 澳门正版新莆京游戏data extracted from the newspaper file。

Background Introduction: The origin and development of newspapers

The environment where the newspaper is located determines which news is published, Therefore, it is necessary to introduce the environmental characteristics of the newspaper industry。 The development of the newspaper can be divided into three periods。第一, From the first news澳门正版新莆京游戏paper published by the United Kingdom in the 1960s to the "Printing Age" at the end of the 18th century。 Newspaper is usually used as part of the printing business, To a large extent is the government or other powerful sponsored mouthpiece。

第二, From the beginning of the 19th century to the middle and late 19th century, "Editing Times"。 During this period, newspapers are increasingly hi澳门正版新莆京游戏ring full -time editors and reporters, The accuracy and timeliness of the report have been improved。 News and editing agencies are mainly controlled by power editing。

第三, "Publishing Mercy Times" after the 1880s。 Chain newspaper all over the country has gradually formed,21113_21131。 Compared with the newspaper of the Victorian era, Modernist newspapers have less entries、2116澳门正版新莆京游戏2_21166、21117_21121、 Clear features。

21118_21131

首先,21193_21210。 The author discovered, Research in the field of economics uses historical newspapers and periodical data mostly comes from the United States and the United Kingdom。 British side, All research uses data in the British newspaper archives。 Comparison of comparison, Research in the United States uses a variety of sou澳门正版新莆京游戏rces, includes Newspapers. com, Chronicling America database of the U.S. Congress Library, Early American Newspaper Archive, Newspaperarchive. com, Proquest Historical NewSpapers, Gale ’s Ninetenth Century NewSpaper Archive, etc.。 newSpapers. COM is the most used database to date。 The author searches the neutral word "Monday" in the database to inspect the archive coverage 澳门正版新莆京游戏of each database, The result is shown in Table 1。

The New York Times in the United States and the Wall Street Journal and the British Times、 "Guardian" and "Economist" and other major newspapers usually will not appear in digital newspaper databases。 These newspapers generally have their own historical archives library, It must be accessed through a separate subscription servic澳门正版新莆京游戏e。 Digital History Newspaper Database outside the United States and Britain has not been widely used。

接着, The author discusses the data mining method of historical newspapers。 When extracting data from the History Newspaper Database, The degree of extraction and utilization of information is often limited by the system。 At present, only the Chronicling America d澳门正版新莆京游戏atabase of the US Congress Library allows researchers to download related articles, Other databases must use the search portal provided by the data provider to access。因此, Most studies use a method of searching for one or more keywords to identify events of specific types。

此外, The author introduced the usage how to use the newspaper directory, and evaluate the coverage of existing digital ne澳门正版新莆京游戏wspaper databases。 The directory of the newspaper is a very valuable tool。 It provides quite comprehensive existing newspaper list and other useful information, If the political faction of each newspaper、 Report content range、 Price and Publishing frequency, etc.。

但是, At present, there are fewer digital directory versions。 Author digitalization The full set of director澳门正版新莆京游戏y data of all US newspapers in the United States in 1910 and the newspaper directory data of the newspaper other than London in 1895, These two data can be obtained in the copy package of the article。 Compare these two directory with the main newspaper database used by related research, The author found that the existing newspaper directory only covers a small part of newspapers in a spe澳门正版新莆京游戏cific environment, The coverage rate of the US newspaper databases is very different。 This means that the selection of newspapers when using newspaper data is very important。

Data Challenge and Solution

The core challenge of using digital historical newspapers data is the choice of samples。 The article provides some possible solutions: 1. Adjustment coverage。 A standard purpose of 澳门正版新莆京游戏a historical newspaper database is to compare the space or time distribution of certain types of data with other variables。 The frequency of this type of data may be affected by the basic newspaper set in the database used, Bring a choice deviation。 A simple method is to remove the original search "hits" with appropriate denominator, This can be analyzed according to the percentage of t澳门正版新莆京游戏he basic distribution of the newspaper。

2. Data weigh。 Research on the use of newspaper data as a result variable, Even if there is endogenous sampling, You can also get consistent results through appropriate weighted regression。

3. Improvement recognition strategy。 information of each newspaper provided in the directory, We can determine what the newspaper in the newspaper fil澳门正版新莆京游戏e is selected in which aspects are selected, and evaluate whether this choice will cause problems to a specific analysis method。

总结

So far, The topic and scope of the research on the study of the historical newspaper database are quite concentrated。 Looking forward to the future, The author is expected to use the historical newspaper database research will continue to g澳门正版新莆京游戏row。 Two possible directions for future research are: first, Beyond keyword query, Deepen the understanding of how the newspaper reports evolve over time and space; second, The content information of the digital newspaper is combined with the details of the newspaper market in the directory, This helps understand the evolution of the media market and its impact。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Literature source: Brian Beach, W. Walker Hanlon, 2023, Historical Newspaper Data: A Researcher ’s Guide, Explorations in Economic History.

From the WeChat public account of "Quantitative History".

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