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Peng Xiaoyu | Lanke History: It is not historiography
2024-01-02 08:54  

【 Author press: Dr. Gu Yu invited me to Lanke, which Teacher He Shan is translating《 Pope History》 Write a review, But in the process of writing, 澳门正版新莆京游戏澳门正版新莆京游戏I also thought of the admiration of Lanke's historical methods in the domestic academic community and the respect for historical materials and research。 The key feature of Lanke's historical works is grand narrative, It was a warm discussion of the German society at that time on the issues of reform and development。 Lanke is not a cocoon、 Sudden details of t澳门正版新莆京游戏he historian, His achievements far beyond the history of history。 Refusing the grand narrative“ History of exams”, Often is worried“ Text Prison” Scholars who are scourge have no way to clean and have a good way。 Lang and19 The German historian in the century did not encounter such a social environment。 Their weaknesses in their personality may be that they easily agree with Germany's hi澳门正版新莆京游戏storical traditions and the ideology of Germany at that time, Although they have never and cannot deny the diverse and diversity that always exist in German culture。】

澳门正版新莆京游戏Reading Teacher He Shan's translation always makes me feel relieved and happy, There is a rare relaxed mood when reading translation works。 This is as far as her translation, And her translated Lanke’s《 Pope Hi澳门正版新莆京游戏story》 But it is not a reader that makes readers relax。 This is precisely because this classic historic masterpiece based on primitive historical materials by the Chinese academic community, There is no lack of the author's strong subjective position, So that the reader needs to analyze his denominations after the author's seemingly fair narrative—— It is st澳门正版新莆京游戏ill clear at the same time。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Pay attention to the viewing and using the archive material Lang in his《 Preface》 Write this way:“ Protestant and North Germans have a more neutral position for the Pope。” This sentence alone exposes Lanke's own new religious position, Emotional factor of favors and preference for Protestants, It means that it is difficult for h澳门正版新莆京游戏im to have what he advertised“ More pure historical perspective”, It is difficult to adhere to the fairness and impartial attitude that he hopes to uphold when describing historical stories。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Lanke appreciated, We need to put his work in the context of the history of thought to estimate。 I think the Chinese academic community especially needs to re-evaluate Lang in thre澳门正版新莆京游戏e basic issues in three aspects: 1、 How to use the original file literature; 2、 Bai16 Century religious reform, Especially when he calls it“ Anti-religious reform” Catholic reforms and active Jesus among them, Lanke's《 Pope History》 How to deal with it; 3、 When reviewing Langke and Lanke image created by later generations, We only have to remove Lanke's hist澳门正版新莆京游戏orical research as an idol worship that is respecting the history of history, Only to truly understand his academic contribution and ideological achievements。

1

See Lanke as a model for rigorous handling historical materials and objective narrative history, It is the basic reason for the understanding of Chinese academic circles and respect Lanke。 The question is, Is t澳门正版新莆京游戏his evaluation of this praise or degradation of Ranke?

澳门正版新莆京游戏Leo Pod· Lanke(1795-1886 Year) Always left a deep and good impression on Chinese readers。 This is not because his works have a large number of Chinese version released earlier。《 Pope History》(1834-1839 Published on the year) and his other important works have not been fully published in the mainland for a long time。 Business Pre澳门正版新莆京游戏ss in the Business Press in1989 Published the historical history of British scholar Guqi in the year《 19th-century historian and historian》( up and down volume, The first edition of English is published in1913 Year)。 The Chinese version of the book has long been the main reference book for domestic history of learning Western history, Among them, 澳门正版新莆京游戏the introduction of Langke is 澳门正版新莆京游戏more detailed, and it is completely positive, Emphasis《 Pope History》 Yes“ Objective narrative”, I used rich information。 Guqi praises La Ke like this:“ Lanke is the greatest historian in modern times, Not only because he created the scientific method of research data, And because he has unparalleled fair quality。”[1] Most readers in China have the views on 澳门正版新莆京游戏Lanke mainly from Gu Qi's above-mentioned works。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Lanke's《 Pope History》 Not a history, The main record is16 and17 The situation of the century, Especially highlights the performance of the Pope in the reform and Catholic reform。 Different attitudes from Guqi, It is the evaluation of Lanke for British scholars Dickens and Tang Jin。 They are1985 Published on the year《 Religious 澳门正版新莆京游戏reforms in historical concepts》, Systems and detailed tracing related history and history of ideology, Also re-evaluated Lanke。 In their opinion, and19 Some other historians comparison of the century, For example, with Kizo in France、 Comparison of McCale and Clear in the UK, Have a attitude to pursue historical truth, Being able to surpass sect bias to a certai澳门正版新莆京游戏n extent、 The impact of emotional and ideological tendencies is Lanke and their common features。 They, Including Lanke, 澳门正版新莆京游戏instead, It is by no means a completely lost attitude and feelings in historical research。

澳门正版新莆京游戏It is different from the passionate authors such as McCara, Lanke called for scholars to avoid passion、 hostile and extreme, But this does not mean th澳门正版新莆京游戏at he has no subjective position, It is impossible for him to completely get rid of the colors of the sect。[2] Di Kens and Tang Jin for example, Lanke to Martin· Luther and the founder of Jesus, 澳门正版新莆京游戏Stana· Luo Yaolla View, Explain that he has a clear understanding of the history of the Catholic Church, But it also reflects his prejudice。[3] This part of the content of the orig澳门正版新莆京游戏in of the Juejue and Jesuit( see《 Pope History》 No. 11 Volume No. 12 Volume No. 14 Chapter) I made the following views: The same situation as Irina, Luther experienced a mental crisis in the process of exploring religious life, But he gained peace of mind with his confidence in Christ and the Bible, Liberation from the trouble caused by pure personal experience。“ The opposite is, Luo Yao澳门正版新莆京游戏lla lives completely in hallucinations and images”, Pursue the direct interaction between his personal and God。

澳门正版新莆京游戏《 Pope History》 and other works of Lanke on the use of archives and literature, It is not as wide and systematic as Lang himself and his admirers claim。 According to Langke's own statement, Although the Holy See Archives of the Vatican failed, He used Frankfurt、 Berlin、 澳门正版新莆京游戏Vienna、 Manuscripts in Rome and Venice。 When the lack of modern library literature processing means, With the assistance of academic institutions and teams without scale, In the limited time spent by him, Even the number of file literature that Lanke can see far exceeds the scope of the scope he can sort out and read。

Di Kens and Tang Jin commented on this, early at1861 In the year, 澳门正版新莆京游戏澳门正版新莆京游戏some scholars pointed out that Lanke is writing《 Pope History》 and other subsequent works should just browse a small part of the relevant archives collection, No systematic inspection and use at all, Although he advertises that he represents the new method of modern history major, The archives literature with completely grasping related issues as the basis o澳门正版新莆京游戏f the research。 Lanke is actually just a hint, instead of showing off his system of file literature with exact words。 Maybe he wants to indicate, He has realized the key significance of the file literature on research。

Really valuable is, Lanke has a large number of second-hand documents that already existed at the time, That is, 澳门正版新莆京游戏the extremely rich writings wr澳门正版新莆京游戏itten by the predecessors have written about the Pope and Religious Reform, There is a thorough and deep grasp。 Di Kens and Tang Jin pointed out, in《 German History of Religion Reform》 Inside, Lanke quotes a huge amount of second-hand writings in the comment。 Relying on these second-hand writings that have been rarely mentioned later and the original materia澳门正版新莆京游戏ls he collected by himself, Lanke's review and analysis gives creative descriptions and conclusions for historical events。[4]

Di Kengs and Tang Jin borrowed Sir Akton, the worshipers of Lanke, Lanke did not use manuscripts when he started historical writing, After that, 澳门正版新莆京游戏the opponent's draft literature is slightly involved, But in the end it is claimed“ Resear澳门正版新莆京游戏ch on modern history cannot be scientific, Unless the researchers use all written evidence”。[5] This paragraph is actually not degrading Langke。

Akton1886 Year in《 British historical review》 In the early issue, there were long texts evaluating German historical research at that time, Among them, 澳门正版新莆京游戏Lake's historical research and methods。 Akton is mainly affi澳门正版新莆京游戏rming Lanke’s unique contribution。 He pointed out, The use of original archive materials to study history was indeed a phenomenon that gradually became universal at the time, Not the original, But Lanke's significance to this new method gives a very clear and clear affirmation, and emphasize the value of historical research itself, Avoid using historical nar澳门正版新莆京游戏ratives directly and randomly for politics、 Religion and other purposes, Therefore, it also refuses to make a simple and non-black or white cut off for historical figures and events。[6]

澳门正版新莆京游戏Igers is in1962 Note in the year, The American historic community once accepted Lanke and its research method in a highly selective way, Emphasize the side of its science and objec澳门正版新莆京游戏tive processing of original literature, Improve the research class of its teaching history, But ignore the thoughts and theoretical thinking behind its research。 American scholars in19 Century and20 At the beginning of the century, 澳门正版新莆京游戏the view of Lanke was, His strictly rebuild history based on historical materials, Avoid adding philosophy and moral views to the middle of historical 澳门正版新莆京游戏narrative,26492-26493“ Reconstruction of history according to the real situation”。 Other American scholars propose to criticize him based on a fallacy understanding of Lanke, I think he tries to simply rebuild historical facts, No deep analysis and interpretation of history, And the intention of his objective reproduction of history is impossible to achieve澳门正版新莆京游戏, He didn’t do it himself。[7]

澳门正版新莆京游戏In the same period, The German academic community also respects Rank, But the point of view is completely different from American scholars, In-depth discussion of Lake's historical theory and the world view and historical concept that he tried to express in the historical narrative, Including the key role of deity as an importan澳门正版新莆京游戏t decisive factor while recognizing the key role of the country: Lanke recognizes the important role of religion in history, No position like Hegel and other German scholars raised the country to the supreme position。 This assessment did not deny Langke's attention to historical materials and cases, Instead of noticing, Lanke emphasizes the purpose of micro-澳门正版新莆京游戏history research to understand the macro historical pattern, At the same time, try to avoid using the first-in-the-in-law theoretical mode to control、 Use a macro frame to cut historical narrative。[8]

澳门正版新莆京游戏Chinese readers are reading Lanke《 Pope History》 Time, If you understand the aforementioned history and ideological history, Not only will you better appreciate the wonderful story 澳门正版新莆京游戏told by the author, It will also understand his intentions and the thoughts behind his narrative, Of course, it will also avoid the so-called test history of idol worshiping Langke and his image。 Actually, Lanke is not a cocoon、 Sudden details of the historian, His achievements far beyond the history of history。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Refusing the grand narrative“ History of exams”, Often is wo澳门正版新莆京游戏rried“ Text Prison” Scholars who are scourge have no way to clean and have a good way。 Lang and19 The German historian in the century did not encounter such a social environment。 Their weaknesses in their personality may be that they easily agree with Germany's historical traditions and the ideology of Germany at that time, Although they have never and cannot deny the diverse and diversi澳门正版新莆京游戏ty that always exist in German culture。

2

澳门正版新莆京游戏Scholar Crig once talked about, Lanke's Luther's position and the new Platoism he agree with him provided him with a macro frame for handling historical details, That is the spirit and principles that surpass the individual special historical stories, or, Shape history“ God's hand”。 His《 Pope History》 Originally a component of h澳门正版新莆京游戏is study of the history of southern Europe, Focus on the study of the personal activities of the Pope, Use the file literature he can find, Rebuild the historical specific truth。 But the end result is, This history of the Pope has become a world history, It reflects that universal Christianity not only develops in modern times, and participate in the growth 澳门正版新莆京游戏of various modern nation-states in Europe。

That is to say, The story of world history and important historical figures, 澳门正版新莆京游戏and the history of the country is intertwined, Show the single value of human history、 Diversity and universal nature。 In other words, According to Feng· Luo's saying, Lanke attaches importance to reliable historical evidence、 Authoritative 澳门正版新莆京游戏archives literature, Practice to restore the original appearance of history, But these are just starting points for his historical research。 That is to say, His research history, or so-called“ Science” History research, It's just the starting point of its history, instead of its end point。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Clig and Feng· Luo Eric talks, From Langke's view, After finishing and determining the bas澳门正版新莆京游戏is of historical materials, Differential analysis and understanding of the connection between individual specific historical events, Find out the overall development of history, Need scholars“ Futation and approach with the feeling” Truth。 They can feel“ God's hand” The role of historical development。 At the level of understanding history more fundamentally than this case,澳门正版新莆京游戏澳门正版新莆京游戏, Historians need a kind of“ Higher gentleness”, When the ultimate historical truth emerges, What he needs to do is not an analysis, but contemplative、 Watch and pay attention to this kind of“ Unpredictable sweetness and vivid”。 Feng· Lore even said, In this sense, History research is Lang's religious worship method, It is his unique way to explore God's revelation。[9]

澳门正版新莆京游戏That is to say, Lanke has a position and tendency, instead of simply examining scholars。 He attaches great importance to testing, Because he hopes to explore and confirm the truth he believes。

澳门正版新莆京游戏To expand and deepen the foreign historical knowledge of domestic readers, Translation Lanke's《 Pope History》 Very important, But sort out Lanke’s narrative、 Perspective and method 澳门正版新莆京游戏must also be carried out at the same time。 A series of outdated views on the early modern history and the history of Christian religious history in the domestic world history textbooks are directly or indirectly related to Lanke, Through last century50 and60 The Soviet textbooks and works translated by the ages are passed on, It becomes a paradigm that our 澳门正版新莆京游戏academic circles often repeat and applied at will。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Few scholars and readers question whether these views are in line with facts, Whether it is just a specific faction position。 These paradigms are indeed not a few formulas we can repeat and apply at will。 Translation from Teacher He Shan《 Pope History》 After publishing, Lanke's readers in China will become quite huge。 I hope, Su澳门正版新莆京游戏ch a great event of thought and culture should not be virtually become an opportunity to continue to spread these old views。 For this, I use several cases below to explain the location and influence of Lanke in early modern historical research。

澳门正版新莆京游戏“ Anti-religious reform” 《 Pope History》 The German version was originally used as Lanke4 Volume《16 and17 Century Southe澳门正版新莆京游戏rn European King and National History》29355-29362( No. 12-4 Volume), Its core content is not a simple pope history, but the historical history of the large-scale modern Catholic Church, Including Pope、 Jesus and Terrace Congress Congress(1545-1563 Year) Historical evolution in many aspects of problems。 In the minds of Lanke as a Protestant, The history of th澳门正版新莆京游戏e Catholic Church and the Catholic country during this period is based on the religious reform initiated by Luther。

澳门正版新莆京游戏To a large extent, The Pope History he wrote is a piece“ Anti-religious reform” History。 Catholic reforms in the early generation are regarded as the anti-religious reform movement, Not from Lanke, But he is《 Pope History》 This word is used inside, Promoting the popular澳门正版新莆京游戏ity of this expression。 Later Catholic scholars sometimes use this word, But what they emphasize is the continuity and independence that the church reform movement has possessed since the late Middle Ages, It is believed that Catholic reform is not just to fight back the Protestant Movement。[10]

澳门正版新莆京游戏Because Lanke is in《 Pope History》 The writing in the writing absorbed the results of many 澳门正版新莆京游戏of his previous second-hand works, So many of his narratives and ideas are not original, The system he established has outstanding originality: Pope Activity、 Terrano Conference、 The establishment and development of the Jesuit and many events in the political and international relations of European countries, It was united in Lanke's pen to be one, Boarded 澳门正版新莆京游戏as a grand historical narrative。 He tried to reveal the intricate and interaction between various aspects in various aspects。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Religious reform and Catholic reform, Many views of Lanke are typical views of new teachers, There is a complete repetition in our historical textbooks, Its direct source is the authoritative Watemin。[11] The advantage of this academic hist澳门正版新莆京游戏ory and ideas is, Soviet scholars and our teaching materials tend to avoid writing special church history, but like Lanke, Take the history and religious reform history as part of the overall history of Europe and the world。 Lanke is the emphasis on political history, But at the same time also attaches importance to the impact of social and economic reasons on change。 For example, 澳门正版新莆京游戏澳门正版新莆京游戏in《 Pope History》 No. 12 Volume No. 18 Album, He noticed17 Century Holy See's oppression and exploitation of pope farmers and businessmen, and the church's corruption in the appointment of judicial and clergy。 He also pointed out that the upper level of the church lived a luxurious life, Lost the moral leadership ability。 He believes that these problems are 澳门正版新莆京游戏why the Catholic Church loses its spiritual power, and hinder the church reform inside, and the Protestant Church not only uses reforms to get rid of the traditional power structure of the Pope and Catholicism, It is also out of the root of corruption。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Lanke's new religion here is obvious。 But the fair and objective place he is better than Simin is, He admits that there 澳门正版新莆京游戏is always a practice of reform and reform in the Catholic Church。 in《 Pope History》 No. 11 Volume No. 11-2 Album, Lang noticed, in15 Late Century and16 Germany at the beginning of the century、 Italy and other parts of Western Europe have internal reform churches、 Opinions and activities of eliminating the corruption of churches。 Lanke's limitations lies in, 澳门正版新莆京游戏He regards all signs of these reforms as associated with new education reform, Or a parallel phenomenon, or Catholic response to the reform of the Protestant Religion。 Late academic research generally believes, The emergence of the intention of Catholicism is earlier than Luther's reform, It is a tradition that has continued in the late Middle Ages, And this 澳门正版新莆京游戏kind of reform does not all have the intention of negating the authority of the Pope, Some even expect to strengthen the authority of Pope as a means of reform。 For this, Ivinni unique specifically interpretation。[12]

澳门正版新莆京游戏The cause of religious reforms Lang's Protestant prejudice is undoubtedly explained in his explanation16 澳门正版新莆京游戏The cause of religious reforms in the centur澳门正版新莆京游戏y is the most obvious when it occurs。 This is also the point of view inherited by our textbook。 From Langke's view, The reason why German religious reforms occur, The root cause is the corruption of the church, That is the growth of the secularization tendency of the church, The church's departure of the religious spirit of Christ, One of its outstanding performances is the activity of t澳门正版新莆京游戏he Roman Pope selling the atonement voucher and their arrogant extravagant life。 He also pointed out the challenges of the authoritative authority of the Emerging Western European nation to Pope, and put religious reforms in this context。

For example, he mentioned, The reason why Luther can successfully spread its reform thought, To a large extent, 澳门正版新莆京游戏he was supported and protected 澳门正版新莆京游戏by the selection of Saxon and some other big nobles。 Lanke is in《 Pope History》 No. 11 Volume No. 11 Volume tells Pope Lio X(1513-1521 Nianjian) Story。 Lio has to be involved in the interests of the Pope's interest in Italy to deal with France、 The secular politics of powerful forces such as Austria and Spain, A series of troubles caused by this hinder him in time to deal with the churc澳门正版新莆京游戏h division crisis brought by Luther。 Lanke's analysis of Luther Reform always takes politics、 Dear and national growth of the country's three factors is closely linked。

澳门正版新莆京游戏As an expert on religious reform, Multi-volume edited by German scholar Jaedin《 Church History》 Inside, Iziluo also talked about the reasons for the origin of religious reform。 This chapter of Yizello is actual澳门正版新莆京游戏ly a very wonderful history of thought, The idea of ​​Langke forms a comparison with rich meaning。 In Lanke's《 Pope History》 Research between the religious reform of the late Catholic religious reform, The basic framework of the narrative is not much different。 Pope and Holy See, Jesus and other important monastery groups, Political activities and church ref澳门正版新莆京游戏orms around the Terrant Conference, It constitutes people know16 and17 Several main perspectives of the Catholic Church of the Century。 This is a change since Lanke., However, the recent recent research will pay more attention to religious thoughts、 Social history and folk culture, Not so focused on political history。

Lanke's preferred tendency of Loude and Protestantism makes 澳门正版新莆京游戏his research with obvious sect positions, This is a problem that late researchers try to avoid。 For example, 澳门正版新莆京游戏like Lanke, Ielize noticed France、 Spain、 The rise of modern countries such as Austria and Britain and the strengthening of national consciousness, I believe that this has a challenge for the religious leadership formed in the Middle Ages。 In this pattern, The correct r澳门正版新莆京游戏esponse of the Pope should be weakened by the activity that they are involved in the secular power struggle, Strengthen their religious duties, and the Pope actually involved in geopolitics in order。

澳门正版新莆京游戏But Ielize and contemporary scholars generally just question the Pope's policy and criticize their religious mission of negligence in the church, Not denying the legitimacy of the 澳门正版新莆京游戏Catholic Church and the Pope's system itself。 Lanke is in《 Pope History》 The criticism of the Pope is itself, Even denying a series of other traditions of the Catholic Church。 He thinks, The authority of the Pope was once beneficial to“ World Progress”32391-32392, But conflict with the interests and development of various countries at this time, Therefore, the influence of the Pope is l澳门正版新莆京游戏imited、 Strengthening the control of the state's repairs and local churches has become a tendency to dominate modern European history, And this trend is synchronized with the rise of Protestantism。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Here, Lanke not only acknowledge the reform of the new education reform meets the needs of the times, Also further, Negotiation of the legitimacy of the Pope and the Catholic Churc澳门正版新莆京游戏h under his leaders。 in《 Pope History》 No. 11 Volume No. 11 Volume No. 13 Chapter Talking about Pope Crame VII, Lanke wrote: German religious reform permanent glory is to restore the purity of early churches, Re-discovered“ Real belief”。 From Langke's view, Catholics can make their church re-gain vitality if she wants to reform, You must accept the understan澳门正版新莆京游戏ding of Christian religion, Even if they retain the Pope system and the tradition of the monasticism that have been abandoned by Protestantism。[13]

澳门正版新莆京游戏Here, Lanke and Ielize、 Lanke has obvious differences with the late religious reform researcher。 Ielize admitted to admitted corruption issues in the church since the late Middle Ages: Smart staff violations of 澳门正版新莆京游戏discipline, Nobles often occupy multiple senior priest positions and their income, The life of the Holy See and Senior Masters Luxury, Pope In-depth intervention of secular politics。 However, modern scholars such as Elosa and Jame generally believe that the Catholic Church has its own reform of the ideas and mental resources, Catholic reform has germinated before Luther澳门正版新莆京游戏's reform, The authority of the Pope and a series of traditions and reforms of the church are not contradictory。

澳门正版新莆京游戏In some aspects, Catholic scholars such as Elosa's views on the internal disadvantages of the church are more acute and profound than Langke。 For example, 澳门正版新莆京游戏Ielize pointed out, The theology in the late Middle Ages has increasingly visualized the inherent meaning of the mass an澳门正版新莆京游戏d other Catholic traditions under the influence of only famous theory, increasingly inclined to equate the external form of religious activities with the belief itself, Weaken the inner power of belief life, It has encouraged the cynical hypocrisy attitude in the middle of the believers。[14] Smilin described Catholic reform in his religious reform research 澳门正版新莆京游戏as“ European feudal reaction and anti-religious reforms”。 He realized that the reform of Protestantism and Catholicism was supported by the nobles and kings, Therefore, it is difficult to equate the confrontation with sectarian confrontation with class opposition and anti-feudal struggle。 Despite this, He still insists on saying,“ The most reactionary forces try to recover and 澳门正版新莆京游戏strengthen the prestige of the Holy See and Catholic Church。”[15]

澳门正版新莆京游戏Smilin is undoubtedly the study of Langke and other new teachers, The basic framework of his narrative of religious reform and Catholic reform comes from the academic tradition they represented。 Lanke is in《 Pope History》 No. 12 Volume No. 18 Story criticized the moral theology of the Jesuit。 He pro澳门正版新莆京游戏posed, It is not a sense of religious mission that drives Jesus, Their motivation is to use all means to control the believers, Especially the powerful upper people。 Lanke has spread here and some prejudices that are later targeted at Jesus: The Jesus who presided over the confession of the sacrament emphasized that sin was emphasized as the result of the fr澳门正版新莆京游戏ee will, Is the consequences of clear personal consent, Therefore, 澳门正版新莆京游戏people with immoral ideas and behaviors only need to intentionally, They can get God’s forgiveness。 Langke and many new faculties that year, and the Romanson Catholic of the hostile Jesus, I think that the priest of Jesus is easily forgive“ Sinners”, is to expand their influence in all levels of soc澳门正版新莆京游戏iety。 Actually, The doctrine of the Jesus' explanation and the orthodox views of the early churches and the medieval church are not principled。[16] The question is, The Soviet Academy of Sciences, which has a great influence on the Chinese academic community《 History of World Pass》 Inside, Smilin further demonized the image of the Jesuit。 He wrote:

澳门正版新莆京游戏fanatical、 Multi-end、 Jesus wi澳门正版新莆京游戏th insidious response skills, Salon that penetrated into the upper society, The court of infiltrating the king, indulge in their weaknesses and bad habits, Use a conspiracy circle to hold them, Make them submit to their will, Become the executive of the church and the policies of the Holy See。 When it is involved in the interests of the assignment or the execution of its command, Jesus i澳门正版新莆京游戏gnores religious obstacles。 They must not hesitate“ The crime of unforgiving, If the head has this request”。 If the most ugly and immoral behavior or activity is suitable for the interests of the church, He must defend with a set of sophistry and formal logic。 The school of the Jesuit、 Repentance、 Serve patients、 Conspiracy、 Pickling、 Sin behavior—— All this is to pursue“ tricks the mind澳门正版新莆京游戏” Purpose。

澳门正版新莆京游戏This narrative is very close to the position of the Jacobin School of Jacobin during the French Revolution。 There is a distance between Lanke and Smelin, Lanke is obviously much more objective, much mild, But the distance between the two is not far away。 Translation and Publishing Lanke's《 Pope History》 Of course important, But I want to, The purpose is defi澳门正版新莆京游戏nitely not in favor of his views with distinctive sects, Not to mention the strong anti-religious Jacoberist position such as Smilin to return the soul。

澳门正版新莆京游戏The establishment and early development of the Jesuit Reform of the Council and the emergence of some new practices committed to church reform are important aspects of early Catholic reforms, These practices a澳门正版新莆京游戏re also the main force of the entire church reform, and the Jesus is the most powerful、 The most watched by researchers。 Lanke's《 Pope History》 Yes19 One of the most important Jesuit history research in the century。 He is《 Pope History》 No. 13 Volume introduced the literature he used, in the first5 Part of the history of the repair conference written in the early Jesus' writing, Praise t澳门正版新莆京游戏heir achievements in preserving literature and system research, It is believed that the more prominent work is the history of the record and writing of the founder of the record and writing.。 Within the range he can contact, Lanke obviously tried to familiarize themselves with the early history and literature of the Jesuit。

澳门正版新莆京游戏in《 Pope History》 Inside, The story of the Jesus occupies th澳门正版新莆京游戏e position of the center。 Lanke mainly talked about the problems in the two aspects of the repair meeting: The experience of the founder Yina; Jesus is in17 Difficulties encountered in the century, Including the internal management of the repair meeting and the situation of the resolution meeting in European countries。 Lanke reads and uses Zinajue's own writ澳门正版新莆京游戏ing, The Story he tells the story of the Jon of Jue has become a classic, and have a great impact because of his status。 Lanke, who has a serious academic attitude, 澳门正版新莆京游戏certainly will not deliberately distort historical facts, His narrative of Rena and Jesuit is generally objective, But in addition to the aforementioned misunderstanding of the traditional misunderstanding of J澳门正版新莆京游戏esus, He still has two views that are easily misunderstood and magnified by future generations to clarify。 Lanke is too emphasized that the President of the Jesus' internal management and the leaders of various places“ Monarchy Power”, Ignoring the personal initiative of Jesus and the democratic nature of the management management。 Taking the activities of M澳门正版新莆京游戏atteo Ricci and his colleagues familiar to Chinese readers as examples, We see that the actual situation is not as described by Lanke: Starting from China and Asia away from Rome, Many decisions of Jesus are autonomous。 After that they will discuss with the Roman Association through the letter, The result is often their original decision to be approved。 Lanke is in research, Due to objec澳门正版新莆京游戏tive reasons, Can't see a large number of internal archives of the Jesuit( For example, just sorted out published letters)。 This obviously has a lot of obstacles to him in a comprehensive understanding of the history of Jesus, To a certain extent, 澳门正版新莆京游戏he has to rely on some fixed paradigms that are preconceived.。[17] This involves Lanke's second formula description of t澳门正版新莆京游戏he Jesuit, That is to mention the soldiers of Miner Jue many times。 Lanke emphasized, 纳 仿 效, Requires Jesus absolute obedience。 This is a wide circulation view。 But late scholars generally think, This view is not in line with the actual situation。[18]

3

澳门正版新莆京游戏Lanke and Friedrich· Feng· Carl· The history of the law represented by Savini is19 The important ideological resources o澳门正版新莆京游戏f German society in the second half of the century。 They have a calm attitude towards liberalism promoted by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, It is believed that the development of society should pay attention to the common values ​​of human beings, For example, rule of law and personal rights, It is also necessary to respect the history of the cultur澳门正版新莆京游戏e and system of various countries。 In this sense, Lanke's thoughts and the conservative spirit of modern European Catholicism and tradition have the inherent intrinsic nature。[19]

澳门正版新莆京游戏Political History is Lang's main interest。 His thinking about European history expressed his political perspective to a considerable extent, and generally combined with his histori澳门正版新莆京游戏cal narrative。 But he wrote《 Dialogue record of political issues》, Theoretically explained his own political thought。 Lang's position is sometimes said to be conservative, In fact, 澳门正版新莆京游戏he actually supports mild social reform, Stubborn attitude that makes society rigid and stagnant。 Savini is a friend of Lanke, Professor of Berlin University, Study law on the pers澳门正版新莆京游戏pective of evolution from historical。 Savini is《 Dialogue record of political issues》 The dialogue of the imagination of Li Lanke。 He believes that a nation and its system grow up under the influence of its inner spiritual culture。 Lanke and Savini are not completely exclusive to the Western and even global liberalism after the Enlightenment and the French R澳门正版新莆京游戏evolution., But they all notice freedom、 Equality、 The ideal of these revolutions of Boai is not an abstract formula that can be applied at will, Only when they are alive、 Persons and blood、 Specific combination of national and national history combined, Get a unique、 Specific form suitable for this country, These ideals can really become the spiritual wealt澳门正版新莆京游戏h of society and the people。 Lanke's fascination with historical archives is because he wants to use his knowledge of personal、 The distinctive personality of the group and the nation shows, How do these personalities contain and debug ideal principles in a specific context, and finally form the context and direction of the development of various countries, 澳门正版新莆京游戏The process of the history of world history。[20] That is to say, The rigorous literature test is to carry out a grand historical narrative。

澳门正版新莆京游戏About overdoing politics and stubborn conservative, Lanke is in《 Dialogue record of political issues》 There is a brilliant assertion in it: The constructive attitude of truth and warmth is not the result of neutralization and extreme insigh澳门正版新莆京游戏ts and positions。 reconcile or neutralize different、 Even the extreme view of the opposite view will not help people recognize the truth, Because there is often no spirit of truth in extreme radical and extreme conservative views。 Extreme itself is the negation of truth。[21]

澳门正版新莆京游戏This kind of wisdom from profound research from history is Lanke's precious contribution t澳门正版新莆京游戏o modern political thought。 Of course, Lanke's religious position and ideological theoretical views are not always constructive。 His moderate prejudice prejudice is more or less disturbing his views on Catholic Church and Catholic reform。

Original load《 Peking University German Research》 No. 16 Volume

[1] Gu Qi,《 19th-century historian and historian》 Volume abo澳门正版新莆京游戏ve( Beijing: Business Press,1989 Year), No. 1175-215 page, Introduction to see190、215 page。

[2] A. G. Dickens and John Tonkin, 澳门正版新莆京游戏TheReformation in Historical Thought (Cambridge, Massachusetts: HarvardUniversity Press, 1985), pp. 150-175, See the part of Langke directly for discussionpp. 167-175.

[3] A. G. Dickens and John Tonkin, TheReformation in Historical Thought, p. 170.

澳门正版新莆京游戏[4] A. G. Dickens and John Tonkin, TheReformation in Historical Thought, 澳门正版新莆京游戏pp. 174-175. Di Kens and Tang Jin quoted Czech scholar Anton· Jin Daili(1829-1892 Year) Opinions, But Jin Deli criticized Langke's original words, actually more sharp。 SeeA. W. Ward,“Anton Gindely,”EnglishHistorical Review 8 (1893), pp. 500-514, Herepp. 506-507. For《 Pope History》 Writing, Lanke once stay澳门正版新莆京游戏ed in Italy and other places for a long time, But Jin Daili believes that his use of archives is still superficial。

[5] A. G. Dickens and John Tonkin, 澳门正版新莆京游戏TheReformation in Historical Thought, p. 174. Quoting Akton's words here comes fromLord Acton,“GermanSchools of History,”English HistoricalReview 1 (1886), pp. 7-42, Herep. 16.

[6] Lord Acton,“German Schools of History,”pp. 13-17.

澳门正版新莆京游戏[7] Georg G. Iggers,“Image of Ranke in American and German HistoricalThought,”History and Theory 2(1962), pp. 17-40, 澳门正版新莆京游戏Here17-27.

[8] Georg G. Iggers,“Image of Ranke in American and German HistoricalThought,”pp. 27-40.

[9] Theodore H. von Laue, Leopold Ranke: The Formative Years (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1950),pp. 42-45; Leonard Krieger,澳门正版新莆京游戏“Elements of Early Historicism: Experience, Theory,and History in Ranke,澳门正版新莆京游戏”History and Theory14 (1975), pp. 1-14.

[10] About“ Anti-religious reform” This concept and Langke's related contribution, SeeH. Outram Evennet, The Spiritof the Counter-Reformation (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame,1970), 澳门正版新莆京游戏pp. 1-22. The first edition of this book is by Cambridge Uni澳门正版新莆京游戏versity Press1968 Published on the year。 SeeHubert Jedin and John Dolan, ed., History of the Church,vol. 5: Reformation and Counter Reformation, edited by Erwin Iserloh, Joseph Glazik and Hubert Jedin (NewYork: Crossroad, 1980), pp. 431-432. Editor-in-chief of Jaydin10 Volume《 Church History》 Published in the German version in1962-1979 Year。

澳门正版新莆京游戏[11] The Academy of Sciences o澳门正版新莆京游戏f the Soviet Union,《 History of World Pass》 No. 14 Volumes Volume( Beijing: Sanlian Bookstore,1962 Year), No. 1189-276 page( No. 17-8 Chapter)。 But we should notice, Smilin's description of the political history of European countries has not got rid of the basic paradigm used by Lanke, In some aspects, simplified exaggerations with dogmaticism with Soviet charac澳门正版新莆京游戏teristics。 Soviet Marxist history is seriously influenced by German historical influence, It is a question we have always ignored。 We accepted some traditional viewpoints of Western history through Soviet scholars, At the same time, 澳门正版新莆京游戏it is not clear about its coming dragon。

[12] H. Outram Evennet, TheSpirit of the Counter-Reformation, pp. 23-42.

[13] History of the Church,澳门正版新莆京游戏vol. 5: Reformation and CounterReformation, pp.3-11, 433-446.

[14] History of the Church,vol. 5: Reformation and CounterReformation, p.10.

澳门正版新莆京游戏[15] The Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union,《 History of World Pass》 No. 14 Volumes Volume( Beijing: Sanlian Bookstore,1962 Year), No. 1273-276 page。

[16]Thomas Worcester,“Jesuit Dependence on the French Monarchy,”in Thomas Worcester,ed., 澳门正版新莆京游戏The Cambridge Companion to theJesuits (Cambrdige: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 104-119, Herepp. 102-103.

澳门正版新莆京游戏[17] Evaluate Lanke《 Pope History》 It is necessary to understand the book and research status of the early Catholic Church, Compared with a systematic and convenient reference bookJohn O’Malley, ed., Catholicism in Early Modern History: A Guideto Research (St. Louis, 澳门正版新莆京游戏Missouri: The Center for Reformation Research,1988). Systems uses the representative works of Early Jesus' letter research on Early JesusDominique Bertrand, La polotique de S. Ignace de Loyola(Paris: Cerf, 澳门正版新莆京游戏1985). Betron does not think that the Jesus' activities have a secular sense of political and economic interests。 He analyzed the Juejue near7000 Seal澳门正版新莆京游戏ing letter and other works, Try to be in the personal spiritual experience of Yinajue, and his round-trip letters with other Jesus, Explore their attitude towards religion and society。 He feels“ Disappointment” Yes, It is difficult to outline the fixed paradigm of their thoughts and activities in this area。 A large number of literature reflects, 依, Society i澳门正版新莆京游戏s not outside the faith, Jesus should be the glory of God in many areas of social life, And their faith provides them with the work of serving God and neighbors in the world.。

[18]John O’Malley,ed., Catholicism in Early Modern History:A Guide to Research, pp. 149-150.

[19] Lanke is in1832-1836 During the year, 澳门正版新莆京游戏the editor-in-chief supported the Journal of the Prussian go澳门正版新莆京游戏vernment with a mild situation《 History and Politics》, He is1832 I wrote a long article for this publication, Discuss the relationship between Napoleon and Pope's asylum VII。 in1875 Complete works published in the year, He included this article as《 Pope History》 part of it。 SeeLeopold Ranke, Die Geschichte der Päpste (Wiesbaden:Emil Vollmer Verlag, 1957), pp. 603-604.

澳门正版新莆京游戏[20]Leopold Ranke, A Dialogue on Politics, pp. 152-180. Luo Er has a special chapter here to introduce the background of Langke's booklet, See the aforementioned bookpp. 139-151.

[21]Leopold Ranke, A Dialogue on Politics, pp.154-155.

澳门正版新莆京游戏Transfer from“ Ancient History Research Center of Peking University” WeChat public account。

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