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Zhang Naihe: The social nature of the great country、 History type and civilization form
2023-10-19 10:54  

澳门正版新莆京游戏About“ Big Country” One word, Most of our country ismajor country Refers to the status of 澳门正版新莆京游戏China's great country。 This means that China has a big country different from the West。 Because Western powers often usegreat power Self-claim, This word originally refers to Portugal、 Spain、 The early colonial empires such as the Netherlands, Now it is mostly used to refer to Western countries that play the main role in international relations and have the most influential Western count澳门正版新莆京游戏ries。 early at19 At the end of the century20 early century, They are called“ Permanent”。 Today, China as a big country is a big country that creates a new form of human civilization through the Chinese-style modern road。 Therefore, We should construct an autonomous theoretical discourse system and narrative system, To explain the relationship between the great pow澳门正版新莆京游戏er and civilization more deeply。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Reason for rational thinking about big powers and civilizations

澳门正版新莆京游戏From the perspective of the social nature of the country, After giving birth to the country at the end of the primitive society, Historically big country-owned slaves、 Greeds a big country、 Capitalist Power and Socialist Power。 From the perspective of the main behavior 澳门正版新莆京游戏of the country, Historically big powers have the two historical types of the great power of the empire and the two major history of civilization。

Empire refers to a country with acts imposed in other countries or ethnic groups。 Therefore, The empire is the way of behavior of some countries, It will also produce an empire-centered empire system。 Empire says from the root cause, is a p澳门正版新莆京游戏rivate product; In essence,澳门正版新莆京游戏, It is an external aggression expansion behavior adopted by the ruling class to protect and expand its interests.。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Different social properties and types are often closely related to different civilizations。 Generally speaking,“ Civilization” Used as a neutral plural noun, The sum of material wealth and spiritual wealth created by humans, or a higher dev澳门正版新莆京游戏elopment stage in human history。 On this basis, Follow the basic principle of Marxism, We believe that civilization refers to a social form at a certain historical stage in essence, Including material civilization on the extension、 Spiritual civilization、 Political Civilization、 Social civilization、 Ecological civilization, etc.。 The deepest and lasting 澳门正版新莆京游戏influence of civilization, Concentrated in a variety of cultural forms and the cultural identity formed by it。

From the perspective of the subject value, All civilizations are equal, There is no difference in high and low, 澳门正版新莆京游戏good and disadvantaged。 But civilization has the sequence of historical sequence, So forming a different historical type。 Just as Marx analyzed Britai澳门正版新莆京游戏n when British rule was pointed out, The relationship between different civilizations on historical sequences, There are at least two rules: One is the degree of civilization of the conqueror than being conquered, Therefore, the anti-conquest of the highly civilized conquest; The other is the degree of civilization of the conqueror exceeded the conqueror, Therefore, 澳门正版新莆京游戏澳门正版新莆京游戏the civilization of the conquered person。 But, There is still a third rule in history, That is。 General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out:“ History tells us, Only communication and mutual learning, A civilization can be full of vitality。 Just uphold the tolerance spirit, There is no any existence‘ Civilized conflict’, It can achieve civilization harmony。” This is a new interpretation of t澳门正版新莆京游戏he law of development of world civilization。

As a big country of civilization, 澳门正版新莆京游戏it is very different from the great power of the empire。 As a big country of civilization, Its civilization is an organic community, It is a colorful civilization to be equal、 The integration of merging and mutual learning of tolerance, Its core is common cultural identity。 This kind of civilization 澳门正版新莆京游戏and the boundary of the country are coincident。 As a big country of the empire, 澳门正版新莆京游戏there are civilizations, But its civilization is often a mechanical collection, It is forcibly incorporated into different civilizations during the expansion of external expansion, Its core is not common cultural identity, Instead of the empire's compulsory force。 This kind of civilization is uninte澳门正版新莆京游戏grally with the boundary of the country。

Capitalism and the previous great power and civilization

澳门正版新莆京游戏Origin from the country and civilization, The rise of the capitalist power and capitalist civilization, The main line and the overall situation of the changes of the big country and civilization are worthy of attention。 Generally speaking, About from now on4 Modern Homo 澳门正版新莆京游戏sapiens appeared until BC8000 Agricultural Revolution around the year, It is the birth of the country and civilization。 Since then, With the emergence of farming and the formation and development of private ownership, Bed BC3100 Around the year of Egypt and Somel's early slavery countries,澳门正版新莆京游戏, until BC1000 The first big impact of the nomadic world about the nomadic world ended for 澳门正版新莆京游戏the first time, It was the evolution of early slavery countries and unstable empire generation period。 Agricultural Revolution in Asia and Europe promotes economic and social change, Breeding farming civilization, Make the Asian and Europe mainland the main stage of human history。 The overall pattern of history gradually moves to the parallel of the two maj澳门正版新莆京游戏or worlds of farming and nomadic。

澳门正版新莆京游戏From BC BC1000 year to AD500 The year of a slavery country has entered the adjustment and change period, It is also a period of slavery as the rise of the classical empire and the formation period of the regional empire system。“ Axis Age” Breeding classical civilization, to AD1 Century Asia and Europe appeared in the large country where the east-west country 澳门正版新莆京游戏and different regions or imperial systems appeared in the East and West。 But the subsequent big migration of the Asia-Europe nation has fundamentally changed this。 The reconstruction of the Western European University Unified Empire ended with failure, The new empire group will give birth to it, Form a unique regional world。 Farming civilization has also made major progress, Become the 澳门正版新莆京游戏fundamental motivation to promote reform。 The total pattern of coexistence between the farming world and the nomadic world is increasingly clear。

澳门正版新莆京游戏AD500 year to AD1500 The year is the rise of the feudal country and the mature period of agricultural civilization。 Classical Empire is decomposed into agriculture under the great impact of the nomadic world on the nomadic world、 introverte澳门正版新莆京游戏d、 Frequent new empire。 The son of Charlie Manpura Louis died, AD843 The third son concluded the year《 Versailles Treaty》, The Charlieman Empire officially three points。9、10 Century Western Europe suffered the invasion of Norman people, until11 The century became stable。 Since then, The new empire began to fight for each other and continued to expand externa澳门正版新莆京游戏lly, until15 to16 Century Great Airlines is coming, Western Europe's feudal new empires have begun to transform to capitalist colonial empires。 The deep power of this period of change is the further expansion of farming civilization。 Under the two major worlds of farming and nomadic, It is a diversified center、 Multiple world development situation。

澳门正版新莆京游戏With the arrival of the era of 澳门正版新莆京游戏the Great Ocean,23147-231481500 year to1850 The year of the formation and consolidation of the European nation-state, It is also the establishment period of capitalist power and civilization, and formed an international treaty system based on international law。 Its main sign is1648 Year《 Westporia and Treaty》 and the subsequent Westparian treaty system。 The 澳门正版新莆京游戏inherent motivation of this period of change is the rise of industrial civilization。 With the formation of the world market, The main stage of human history has shifted from the Asia-Europe continent to global, The historical general pattern has changed from the two major worlds of farming and nomadic to the parallel of agricultural civilization and industrial civilization。

澳门正版新莆京游戏澳门正版新莆京游戏Capitalism Drive, Competition to delineate the scope of power, Gourd in the world。 Capitalist power and civilization and its international system are essentially reflected in the economic relationship of bourgeoisie dominating。 Marx in《 Capital theory》 Volume 1 pointed out, The bourgeoisie has a subordinate relationship in domestic economic and social relati澳门正版新莆京游戏ons and international relations“ Flower Word” Draw into“ Free contract relationship”。 Lenin recognizes its essence in practice:“ Versailles and Treaty made each victorious nation brighten their eyes, Prove that Britain and France and other countries are not representatives of culture and civilization, but some countries that are known as democracy but are ma澳门正版新莆京游戏nipulated by imperialist robbers。”

Diversity process of Chinese and Chinese civilization

澳门正版新莆京游戏China and Chinese civilization have their own prominent features。 General Secretary Xi Jinping profoundly summarized the prominent continuity of Chinese civilization at the cultural inheritance development symposium、 Innovation、 Unity、 tolerance、 Peace。 From the perspec澳门正版新莆京游戏tive of the relationship between the great power and civilization, Ancient China was a great ancient civilization country based on cultural identity, Ancient East Asia was once a civilized system based on cultural identity, instead of the so-called Western scholars“ The Chinese Empire” and East Asian Empire System。 In the past, we did not accept the concept of Western empire without crit澳门正版新莆京游戏icism, Use the so-called“ Empire Formula”, There have been a lot of misunderstandings and even fallacies for the history of ancient China and East Asian civilization, For the original clear source、 Review。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Since the Western Zhou Dynasty, Lile and Music Culture Ambassador“ Siyi Bin Service” The order of the world is organically integrated, Make China and the surrounding areas get the 澳门正版新莆京游戏corresponding identity and position in the world order, This has formed a diverse Chinese civilization。 In the end of the Spring and Autumn Period“ Rites Luckle” Not a break of cultural identity, It is not the collapse of the civilized system, but the historical turn of the innovation and development of Chinese civilization。 In a hundred comedy, Confucianism represented by Confucius stan澳门正版新莆京游戏ds out。 Confucianism inherits the core of ritual and music culture, combined with gifts with benevolence, Make China deeper as the foundation of an ancient civilization country, Make the world order mode more consolidated。

澳门正版新莆京游戏to the Qin and Han dynasties, East Asian world structure has changed significantly。 The national form in the surrounding areas of China is becoming in澳门正版新莆京游戏creasingly stable, The opening of the Silk Road makes the more distant area and the increasingly close connection with China。 China's own national morphological structure also changes, The unified county system has begun to form, The mode of order of the world is transformed into the ritual extension mode of the monarch and minister。 The country around the country is given by China“ Fore澳门正版新莆京游戏ign Minister” status, Trends with the gift of the monarch and minister; The country outside is“ Gifts of Tucings” Wire by guests。 Confucianism began to spread extensively to East Asia, thus becoming the cornerstone of East Asian cultural identity。

澳门正版新莆京游戏After the Qin and Han dynasties, The historical process of Chinese civilization and diversification accelerates, Yihan m澳门正版新莆京游戏iscellaneous residence, Cultural integration。 The ritual extension mode of the monarch and minister enters the reconstruction period, East Asian Gumper system is born out, This forms Chinese characters、 Confucianism and Buddhism、 East Asian regional world with the law system as the element。 After the Sui and Tang dynasties, China has experienced a division of turbulence, But the trad澳门正版新莆京游戏ition of cultural identity can continue and develop。 The establishment of the Ming Dynasty, From the concept and practice, 澳门正版新莆京游戏the East Asian civilization system based on cultural identity。 This system has continued to the invasion of Western colonials through the reconstruction of the Qing Dynasty。

Western colonists have tried to allow the Qing government to accept the international trea澳门正版新莆京游戏ty system of Western capitalism。 Where, Ding Yiliang, an American missionary who came to China in the late Qing Dynasty, 澳门正版新莆京游戏was commissioned by the Prime Minister of the Qing government.《 World Public Law》, He tried to sell the Western international law system from the Qing government by translating the book。 Chinese people treat Western colonial invaders with cultural identity。 The Qing gov澳门正版新莆京游戏ernment commissioned Ding Yiliang to translate the book, It's just for“ Make Yi Yi”, In order to independently respond to the impact of Western powers and its international treaty system。 Translation and publishing in Ding Yiliang《 World Public Law》 After ten years, Li Hongzhang in《 Placing coastal defense fold》 The true face of Western powers was revealed:“ Foreigners regardless of the 澳门正版新莆京游戏situation, Pressive for the trend, I want to win with a pen, This is also the must-have”,“ Most of the preparations of the past are in the northwest, The strength of its strength、 The guest's trip is suitable, and there is still a medium and external limit。 Today, there are more than 10,澳门正版新莆京游戏000 miles in the southeast sea., Commercial missionary in various countries, Elix Ji Jings澳门正版新莆京游戏hi and hinterland, The name of Yang Tuo, Yin Huai Polying Measures, One country lives, Multi-country concentration, It is really a game that has not changed for thousands of years。” China and East Asia based on cultural identity, Under the impact of Western capitalist power and international treaty system, Facing the challenge of life and death。

The new chapter of the history 澳门正版新莆京游戏of the great country and civilization

1850 After the year, capitalist power and civilization have exposed irreplaceable internal contradictions in crisis and war。 At the same time, The concept and practice of a socialist civilization country unveiled the new chapter of human history。

澳门正版新莆京游戏With the completion of the Industrial Revolution of Western European countries, Social Pol澳门正版新莆京游戏itical Reform Movement Wind rises。 But, Along with Europe“ Spring of the nation” But there is a crisis of civilization, Even someone predicted before the First World War“ End of civilization”。1917 The October Revolution of the Russian October achieved victory, Breaking the world structure of capitalism, Unveil the new chapter of human civilization。 The total pattern of world history also 澳门正版新莆京游戏transforms into parallel in parallel between new and old civilization forms。 Capitalist power from its own“ Guoqiang Bibao” Logic departure, Full of misunderstandings about socialist powers、 Question and even hostile。 The construction practice of a socialist country has strongly refuted this。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Lenin has led the Bolshevik party to carry out valuable explorations。 He pointed out:“ The 澳门正版新莆京游戏major country of centralized systems is a huge historic step that has taken the unity of socialism in the future of the world in the future, Except through this country( The close connection with capitalism) Outside, Without it, 澳门正版新莆京游戏it is impossible to have other roads leading to socialism。” He also pointed out, within a country, From the perspective of developing the economy and 澳门正版新莆京游戏the maintenance of the interests of the masses, Socialist civilization country is more effective、 More beneficial; In terms of national relations, Socialist civilization powers will lead the country that suffers from the persuasion of capitalist powers to form a rich cultural life foundation, so as to accelerate the voluntary approach and integration between 澳门正版新莆京游戏the ethnic groups。 These knowledge and practice exploration is very valuable。

19 In the second half of the century to20 In the first half of the century, 澳门正版新莆京游戏China suffered colonial aggression by Western powers, After a hundred years of humiliation。 The Communist Party of China becomes a leading rescue movement、 Organization of the core of the revolutionary forces。 Li Dazhao、 Qu Qiubai and other澳门正版新莆京游戏s look at the development of human civilization, Criticizing capitalist civilization, Looking forward to socialist civilization with confidence。 After more than 100 years of struggle, ​​The Communist Party of China united and led the people of all ethnic groups in the country to achieve the new democratic revolution、 Socialist Revolution and Construction、 Th澳门正版新莆京游戏e great victory of reform and opening up and socialist modernization, Created a new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics。 China is deep as a historical heritage、 Diversity of nations、 Diverse civilized nations, The power of the new form of human civilization will be, Comprehensively promote the peace and development of the world。

This article is published in《 澳门正版新莆京游戏Guangming Daily》(2023 Year10 month16 Day14 Edition), Reprinted from the official website of Guangming Dailyhttps://news.gmw.cn/2023-10/16/content_36894482.htm

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