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Liu Cheng: "History Horizon" Foreword
2024-01-23 09:57  

Introduction to this book:

澳门正版新莆京游戏Professor Liu Cheng has been engaged in many years of research in the Middle Ages and Early modern European history, Research from the initial British 澳门正版新莆京游戏religious reform, Volume through the British Medieval Church, Extending to Christian culture in Western Europe in the Middle Ages, Finally cultivated a academic roadmap centered on the history of British churches。 This book contains more than 20 representative papers of Professor Liu Cheng, Content involved the Middle Ages Christian Church、 16th century rel澳门正版新莆京游戏igious reform, and Middle Ages and Modern ideas、 Social Structure、 Chronicle method、 History writings。 The content of the article helps readers to understand the relationship between religious reform in the 16th century in the relationship between the king and the right to educate、 The judicial trial system of the church、 Taxation system、 Professional Profes澳门正版新莆京游戏sional、 Religious beliefs and worship rituals and many other aspects of development and changes。

This book was published by the Business Press in December 2023, ISBN: 978-7-100-22892-3。

前言

澳门正版新莆京游戏Article included in this book, Most of the content involves British history -especially the history of the British church, A small part of the content involves a larger range of Eu澳门正版新莆京游戏ropean history, Here is an interpretation and definition of related historical geographical concepts。

First is the concept of "Britain"。 Modern Britain's full name "Great Britain and Northern Ireland United Kingdom", The formation of this political geography pattern has gone through a long historical evolution process。 After forming the "seven kingdom" in the Anglo -Saxon era, 澳门正版新莆京游戏it was formed after forming, King Egbert, 澳门正版新莆京游戏King Wessex, 澳门正版新莆京游戏accepted the surrender of other kingdoms in 829 AD, England began to go unified。 1283, King Edward I of England Conquest Wales, Place Wales under the rule of England monarch。 Henry VIII after the establishment of Wales Border in 1535, Wales becomes an important part of the King of England。 1603, With King James VI of Scotland in澳门正版新莆京游戏herited England's throne, The Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland wear a monarchy。 About 1707 after a century, England and Scotland signed a joint treaty, The two kingdoms formally merged。 So far, England、 Wales、 Scotland becomes a unified country, Can be called "Britain"。 After several centuries of conquest activities, Ireland officially merged i澳门正版新莆京游戏nto Britain in 1801。 But more than a hundred years later, 澳门正版新莆京游戏1920 and 1921, With the help of the Anglo-IRish Treaty, 26 counties in southern Ireland separated from Britain's rule, Become "Irish Free State", 1949 renamed the "Republic of Ireland"。 After 1921, 6 counties in northern Ireland stay under the rule of Britain, The so -called "Great Britain and Northern Ireland United Kingdom" co澳门正版新莆京游戏mes from this。 It is not difficult to see from the evolution process of political geography described above, In the era of religious reform in the Middle Ages and the Tudor dynasty, Establishing various regions of modern Britain is basically in various separate state, Only Wales was included in the scope of English in England。 Because the history described in this book is limited to the 澳门正版新莆京游戏time range of the religious reform of the Middle Ages and the Tudor dynasty, Therefore, all in the book mention "Britain", does not mean "Great Britain and Northern Ireland", but only "England", between or involved in Wales。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Secondly the concept of "British Church"。 Before the religious reform of Henry VIII, England does not exist an institution that can implement unified 澳门正版新莆京游戏management of churches and organizations in various places, Therefore, 澳门正版新莆京游戏strictly say, The concept of "England Church" does not exist。 In the concept of people, The so -called "England Church" is actually "Church in English", Specifically referring to the Cantonbury Main Diocese of the Holy Holy See, This is the two unsatisfactory diocel management units that exist in pa澳门正版新莆京游戏rallel within a kingdom。 This can be seen, The "England Church" in the Middle Ages is just a geographical concept rather than political concept, Its way of existence is the main parish of Canterbury and York.。

澳门正版新莆京游戏但是, The geographical scope of the two major dioxies of Canterbury and York is not limited to England。 4 under the Bishop of Wales (Bange、 Landf、 San Assaf、 St. David), Although the 澳门正版新莆京游戏Wales region rebelled in the Middle Ages, Try to strive for independent status, but none of them succeed, The 4 main dioles in Wales are always under the jurisdiction of Bishop Kanterbury。 From the end of the 14th century British and French century -old war to 16th century (except for 1420-1440), Grand Bishop of Kanterbury exercise religious power in the Canadian City in France。 The Whi澳门正版新莆京游戏t Horn area of ​​Scotland was once affiliated to York's main parish, Only after the establishment of the Diocese of San Andrew in 1472, it was officially classified as Scotland。 The above areas although these areas are temporarily or permanently belonged to the main parish of the Campbrere and the York University Parisabar, But because they exceeded the geographical line of 澳门正版新莆京游戏"England", Basically not within the narrative range of this book。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Henry VIII religious reform established the political structure of "King of Power", The king becomes a symbol of national sovereignty, Become the only authority and objective object of monks and customs。 The dual political system in the Middle Ages finally transformed into a one -dollar political sy澳门正版新莆京游戏stem of kingquanity, Kanterbury's main parisine and York Diocese are no longer a branch of the Latin Christian church centered on the Roman Pope, changed to become the component of the king government。 After the establishment of the political structure of "King of Power", Middle Ages' habitual term "Church in English" converted into "Church of England or Anglicana ECCLESIA)。

Finally, 澳门正版新莆京游戏澳门正版新莆京游戏the concept of "Western Europe"。 In different historical periods, "Western Europe" points to different areas, Contains different cultural content。 "Western Europe" in the classical era, Generally equivalent to the region ruled by the Western Roman Empire (except Africa in northern Africa)。 A shock wave formed by the great migration of the Germanic nation, De澳门正版新莆京游戏stroy the West Roman Empire, But the Christian Church can survive。 Latin Christian Church continues the tradition of classical civilization, and incorporate classical civilization into the German society。 During the period of political division and feudal separation in Western Europe, The Christian Church not only becomes an international center where all me澳门正版新莆京游戏mbers of society live in it, And developed a lot of new parish, The church organization expands to the territory of the ancient Roman Empire in the region。 The 10th century and the early 11th century were the golden period of Latin Christian expansion in the early 11th century: Viking activities and settled Nordic and Western Europe、 Bohemia and Poland of the Central European Plain, It i澳门正版新莆京游戏s also included in the Latin Christian world。 As a geographical and cultural concept, The "Western Europe" in the Middle Ages is generally equivalent to the regional scope of the Latin Christian world。

My History Come, Starting at the undergraduate study of 1977 university at the Beijing Normal University (Capital Normal University)。 Under the guidance of Professor Qi Guoyi of th澳门正版新莆京游戏e industry, Bachelor's thesis with the theme of John Wicklev, 澳门正版新莆京游戏the theme of "First Personal Reform of Religious Reform" in the 14th century、 Master and PhDs based on the topic of religious reforms in the 16th century in the United Kingdom。 After the postgraduate studies are completed, I am fortunate to get the National Education Commission of China、 Hong Kong Bao Yugang Sir Sir、 The "Sino -澳门正版新莆京游戏British Friendship Scholarship" provided by the British Cultural Commission, Go to the University of Birmingham, 澳门正版新莆京游戏UK to engage in academic research。 Dr. Robert Norman Swanson) Guidance, Written the Book of Research on the British Middle Ages (the first prize of the 5th Excellent Achievement of the Fifth Philosophy and Social Sciences in Beijing in 1998。 I also got the Capital Norm澳门正版新莆京游戏al University and the United Kingdom、 Funding from all parties of American academic institutions, Wandering in the Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities、 Texas A & M University、 Harvard University、 Medieval Institute (Medieval Institute)、 University of St. Barbara's Theological Seminary、 University of Vienna and other places, During this period, 澳门正版新莆京游戏澳门正版新莆京游戏I wrote a book "Research on the Status of" People "in the Christian Cultural Environment in the Middle Ages" (selected as "Library of National Philosophy and Social Sciences Achievement Library in 2011), and most papers included in this book。 Starting from British religious reform, Volume through the British Medieval Church, Extending to Christian culture in 澳门正版新莆京游戏Western Europe in the Middle Ages, My historic cultivation finally performed a academic roadmap centered on the history of the British church。

澳门正版新莆京游戏The history of the British church is a wide range of research fields。 In the Middle Ages, The British Church has formed a viabel management system for its own system、 Judicial trial system、 Taxation system, Priest attracted a large number o澳门正版新莆京游戏f male participation as a profession。 The church organization as the carrier of the Catholic belief is confirmed to determine religious teachings、 Host worship ceremony、 Manage daily religious activities, The mission of spreading and maintaining religious beliefs。 The British Church of the Middle Ages as a branch of the Latin Christian Church maintains a lot 澳门正版新莆京游戏of contact with the Roman Holy See, As a part of the British residents, 澳门正版新莆京游戏the component is under the rule of the kingship。 This is as far as the concept of the "church" in the narrow sense。 The narrow "church" refers to the faculty industry with faculty status, and church organizations hosted and managed by the faculty industry。 The "church" in a broad sense should also i澳门正版新莆京游戏nclude Christian in secular identity, Religious beliefs pursued by Christians、 Religious Culture、 Religious customs and many aspects。

澳门正版新莆京游戏The various systems of the British Middle Ages Church are generally formed in the 7-12 century, This is the first period of the development of the British church。 In this period, The layout of the Diocese、 The church's organizational system 澳门正版新莆京游戏basically forms, Faculty at all levels realizes the management of the Diocese in accordance with a certain power system。 1930s, The marriage case of Henry VIII has triggered a political revolution and religious reforms that last for 40 year, This constitutes the second period of the development of the British church。 This political revolution and religious 澳门正版新莆京游戏reform not only changed the affiliation between the British church and the Holy See, The king becomes the highest head of the British church, And the judicial trial system of the church、 Taxation system、 Professional Professional、 Religious beliefs and worship rituals, etc., are mostly touched。 However, 澳门正版新莆京游戏religious reform has not changed the church's parish managem澳门正版新莆京游戏ent system, During the reform of the religious reform, Although the Puritans demanded the abolition of the bishop, But the Puritan's request was not adopted by the Chinese Church, The church organization system formed since the 12th century has been retained until the 19th century。 In the Victorian era, With the implementation of a wide range of social reform plans, The British Church ha澳门正版新莆京游戏s gone through the third development period, Forming a church organization that continues to this day。

澳门正版新莆京游戏Once academic cultivation evolves into a lifestyle, Daily life has evolved into text。 The future life is getting shorter and shorter, The text flowing from life is getting longer and longer。 Harvesting with daily text, There are also full minds and powerful inner world, 澳门正版新莆京游戏Just as the apostle Paul said in the "Boat of Corinth" (4:16): "We never lose our hearts。 Even if the existence of our appearance is declining, The existence inside is updated every day。”

刘城

The preliminary draft was the prelude to the 1996 "British Media Church Research"

Revised at 2021-2022

From the WeChat public account of "Business Press Wenjin Reading Club".

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